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Links & Request Batching

Similar to urql's exchanges or Apollo's links. Links enables you to customize the flow of data between tRPC Client and the tRPC-server.

Request Batching#

Request batching is automatically enabled which batches your requests to the server, this can make the below code produce exactly one HTTP request and on the server exactly one database query:

// below will be done in the same request when batching is enabledconst somePosts = await Promise.all([  client.query('post.byId', 1),  client.query('post.byId', 2),  client.query('post.byId', 3),])

Customizing data flow#

The below examples assuming you use Next.js, but the same as below can be added if you use the vanilla tRPC client

Disabling request batching#

1. Disable batching on your server:#

In your [trpc].ts:

export default trpcNext.createNextApiHandler({  // [...]  // ๐Ÿ‘‡ disable batching  batching: {    enabled: false,  },});

2. Use batch-free link in your tRPC Client#

import type { AppRouter } from 'pages/api/trpc/[trpc]';import { withTRPC } from '@trpc/next';import { AppType } from 'next/dist/shared/lib/utils';// ๐Ÿ‘‡ import the httpBatchLinkimport { httpLink } from '@trpc/client/links/httpLink';
const MyApp: AppType = ({ Component, pageProps }) => {  return <Component {...pageProps} />;};
export default withTRPC<AppRouter>({  config() {    return {      links: [        httpLink({          url: '/api/trpc',        }),      ],    };  },  // ssr: false,})(MyApp);

Using a splitLink to control request flow#

Disable batching for certain requests#

1. Configure client / _app.tsx#
import { withTRPC } from '@trpc/next';import { httpBatchLink } from '@trpc/client/links/httpBatchLink';import { httpLink } from '@trpc/client/links/httpLink';import { splitLink } from '@trpc/client/links/splitLink';
// [..]export default withTRPC<AppRouter>({  config() {    const url = `http://localhost:3000`;
    return {      links: [        splitLink({          condition(op) {            // check for context property `skipBatch`            return op.context.skipBatch === true;          },          // when condition is true, use normal request          true: httpLink({            url,          }),          // when condition is false, use batching          false: httpBatchLink({            url,          }),        }),      ],    };  },})(MyApp);
2. Perform request without batching#
const postsQuery = trpc.useQuery(['posts'], {  context: {    skipBatch: true,  },});
// or
const postResult = client.query('posts', null, {  context: {    skipBatch: true,  },})

Creating a custom link#

import type { AppRouter } from 'pages/api/trpc/[trpc]';import { TRPCLink } from '@trpc/client';
const customLink: TRPCLink<AppRouter> = (runtime) => {  // here we just got initialized in the app - this happens once per app  // useful for storing cache for instance  return ({ prev, next, op }) => {    // this is when passing the result to the next link    next(op, (result) => {      // this is when we've gotten result from the server      if (result instanceof Error) {        // maybe send to bugsnag?      }      prev(result);    });  };};
export default withTRPC<AppRouter>({  config() {    return {      links: [        customLink,        // [..]        // โ— Make sure to end with a `httpBatchLink` or `httpLink`      ],    };  },  // ssr: false})(MyApp);